Lee, JH; Moon, JH; Kim, T (2020). Typhoon-Triggered Phytoplankton Bloom and Associated Upper-Ocean Conditions in the Northwestern Pacific: Evidence from Satellite Remote Sensing, Argo Profile, and an Ocean Circulation Model. JOURNAL OF MARINE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING, 8(10), 788.

A long-lasting phytoplankton bloom, characterized by high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in an eddy-like feature, was detected in MODIS satellite imagery of the northwestern Pacific following the passage of Typhoon Krosa in August 2019. Satellite datasets, Argo measurements, and regional ocean models were analyzed to determine the occurrence and abundance of high-Chl-a concentrations and the upper-ocean conditions associated with them before and after the passage of the typhoon. Remote sensing data revealed that the typhoon triggered sharp increases in surface Chl-a concentrations more than five times the pre-typhoon average, which lasted for two weeks. The elevated post-typhoon concentrations coincided with a pre-existing oceanic cyclone that was detected as an altimetry-based sea surface height anomaly. The typhoon looped around the oceanic cyclone and lingered for two days at slow speeds (less than 2 m/s), producing an unusual sea-surface cooling of up to approximately 9 degrees C in the cyclonic eddy region. Our model successfully captured the typhoon-induced cold-core cyclonic circulation, which corresponded to the region of high Chl-a concentration. Model-data comparisons revealed that the looping motion of the slow-moving typhoon enhanced the pre-existing cyclonic circulation, resulting in strong vertical mixing and upwelling, consequently initiating a phytoplankton bloom due to increased nutrient supply to the euphotic zone.