Lanconelli, C; Banks, AC; Muller, JP; Bruegge, C; Cappucci, F; Gatebe, C; Kharbouche, S; Morgan, O; Mota, B; Gobron, N (2020). In-Situ and Aircraft Reflectance Measurement Effectiveness for CAL/VAL Activities: A Study over Railroad Valley. REMOTE SENSING, 12(20), 3366.

This paper aims to assess the relationship between the surface reflectance derived from ground based and aircraft measurements. The parameters of the Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (RPV) and Ross Thick-LiSparse (RTLS) kernel based bi-directional reflectance distribution functions (BRDF), have been derived using actual measurements of the hemispherical-directional reflectance factor (HDRF), collected during different campaigns over the Railroad Valley Playa. The effect of the atmosphere, including that of the diffuse radiation on bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) parameter retrievals, assessed using 6S model simulations, was negligible for the low turbidity conditions of the site under investigation (tau 550 <= 0.05). It was also shown that the effects of the diffuse radiation on RPV spectral parameters retrieval is linear for the isotropic parameter rho 0 and the scattering parameter Theta, and can be described with a second order polynomial for the k-Minnaert parameter. In order to overcome the lack of temporal collocations between aircraft and in-situ measurements, Monte Carlo 3-D radiative transfer simulations mimicking in-situ and remote sensing techniques were performed on a synthetic parametric meshed scene defined by merging Landsat and Multianglhe Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) remote sensing reflectance data. We simulated directional reflectance measurements made at different heights for PARABOLA and CAR, and analyzed them according to practices adopted for real measurements, consisting of the inversion of BRF functions and the calculation of the bi-hemispherical reflectance (BHR). The difference of retrievals against the known benchmarks of kernel parameters and BHR is presented. We associated an uncertainty of up to 2% with the retrieval of area averaged BHR, independently of flight altitudes and the BRF model used for the inversion. As expected, the local nature of PARABOLA data is revealed by the difference of the anisotropic kernel parameters with the corresponding parameters retrieved from aircraft loops. The uncertainty of the resultant BHR fell within +/- 3%.