Wang, F; Zhang, H; Chen, Q; Zhao, M; You, T (2020). Analysis of Short-term Cloud Feedback in East Asia Using Cloud Radiative Kernels. ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 37(9), 1007-1018.

Cloud radiative kernels were built by BCC_RAD (Beijing Climate Center radiative transfer model) radiative transfer code. Then, short-term cloud feedback and its mechanisms in East Asia (0.5 degrees S-60.5 degrees N, 69.5 degrees-150.5 degrees E) were analyzed quantitatively using the kernels combined with MODIS satellite data from July 2002 to June 2018. According to the surface and monsoon types, four subregions in East Asia-the Tibetan Plateau, northwest, temperate monsoon (TM), and subtropical monsoon (SM)-were selected. The average longwave, shortwave, and net cloud feedbacks in East Asia are -0.68 +/- 1.20, 1.34 +/- 1.08, and 0.66 +/- 0.40 W m(-2)K(-1)(+/- 2 sigma), respectively, among which the net feedback is dominated by the positive shortwave feedback. Positive feedback in SM is the strongest of all subregions, mainly due to the contributions of nimbostratus and stratus. In East Asia, short-term feedback in spring is primarily caused by marine stratus in SM, in summer is primarily driven by deep convective cloud in TM, in autumn is mainly caused by land nimbostratus in SM, and in winter is mainly driven by land stratus in SM. Cloud feedback in East Asia is chiefly driven by decreases in mid-level and low cloud fraction owing to the changes in relative humidity, and a decrease in low cloud optical thickness due to the changes in cloud water content.