Xu, CY; Qu, JJ; Hao, XJ; Zhu, ZL; Gutenberg, L (2020). Surface soil temperature seasonal variation estimation in a forested area using combined satellite observations and in-situ measurements. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATION AND GEOINFORMATION, 91, 102156.

Surface soil temperature is the soil temperature from the surface to 10 cm in depth. Surface soil temperature plays a significant role in agricultural drought monitoring, ecosystem energy transfer modeling, and global carbon cycle evaluation. Studies have been proposed to estimate surface soil temperature, but surface soil temperature monitoring within forested areas still poses a significant challenge. In this study, we proposed a surface soil temperature retrieval method using combined satellite observations and in-situ measurements for the Great Dismal Swamp (GDS). The GDS is a U.S. protected area managed and protected by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It is located along the boundary of Virginia and North Carolina, with maple gum, Atlantic white cedar, and pine pocosin as the main forest cover types. Ground-based surface soil temperature measurements were collected for these forest types from May 2015 to April 2017. Both the Land Remote Sensing Satellite (Landsat) Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) carry two thermal infrared (TIR) channels. The TIR channels with similar corresponding wavelengths were first fused using an improved fusing model to generate high resolution TIR measurements. Then the enterprise algorithm was applied to calculate land surface temperature (LST) from the fused TIR bands. An improved soil temperature retrieval method was applied to generate surface soil temperature based on LST and vegetation index (VI) within the study area for the three forest types. In-situ measurements were used to build the surface soil temperature retrieval method, and results were then validated. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and enhanced vegetation index (EVI) were integrated separately as VIs in the model to monitor surface soil temperature. The R-2 for retrieved surface soil temperature through satellite observations was 0.76, and the RMSE was 1.96 degrees C when NDVI was integrated in the model; the R-2 was 0.78, and the RMSE was 1.85 degrees C when EVI was used.