Wu, X; Sun, XM; Wang, ZF; Zhang, YL; Liu, QH; Zhang, BH; Paudel, B; Xie, FD (2020). Vegetation Changes and Their Response to Global Change Based on NDVI in the Koshi River Basin of Central Himalayas Since 2000. SUSTAINABILITY, 12(16), 6644.

Vegetation forms a main component of the terrestrial biosphere owing to its crucial role in land cover and climate change, which has been of wide concern for experts and scholars. In this study, we used MODIS (moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer) NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data, land cover data, meteorological data, and DEM (Digital Elevation Model) data to do vegetation change and its relationship with climate change. First, we investigated the spatio-temporal patterns and variations of vegetation activity in the Koshi River Basin (KRB) in the central Himalayas from 2000 to 2018. Then, we combined NDVI change with climate factors using the linear method to examine their relationship, after that we used the literature review method to explore the influence of human activities to vegetation change. At the regional scale, the NDVIGS(Growth season NDVI) significantly increased in the KRB in 2000-2018, with significant greening over croplands in KRB in India. Further, the croplands and forest in the KRB in Nepal were mainly influenced by human interference. For example, improvements in agricultural fertilization and irrigation facilities as well as the success of the community forestry program in the KRB in Nepal increased the NDVI(GS)of the local forest. Climate also had a certain impact on the increase in NDVIGS. A significant negative correlation was observed between NDVI(GS)trend and the annual minimum temperature trend (TMN) in the KRB in India, but an insignificant positive correlation was noted between it and the total annual precipitation trend (PRE). NDVI(GS)significantly decreased over a small area, mainly around Kathmandu, due to urbanization. Increases in NDVI(GS)in the KRB have thus been mainly affected by human activities, and climate change has helped increase it to a certain extent.