Lee, KS; Chung, SR; Lee, C; Seo, M; Choi, S; Seong, NH; Jin, D; Kang, M; Yeom, JM; Roujean, JL; Jung, D; Sim, S; Han, KS (2020). Development of Land Surface Albedo Algorithm for the GK-2A/AMI Instrument. REMOTE SENSING, 12(15), 2500.

The Korea Meteorological Administration successfully launched Korea's next-generation meteorological satellite, Geo-KOMPSAT-2A (GK-2A), on 5 December 2018. It belongs to the new generation of GEO (Geostationary Elevation Orbit) satellite which offers capabilities to disseminate high spatial- (0.5-2 km) and high temporal-resolution (10 min) observations over a broad area, herein a geographic disk encompassing the Asia-Oceania region. The targeted objective is to enhance our understanding of climate change, owing to a bulk of coherent observations. For such, we developed an algorithm to map the land surface albedo (LSA), which is a major Essential Climate Variable (ECV). The retrieval algorithm devoted to GK-2A/Advanced Meteorological Imager (AMI) data considered Japan's Himawari-8/Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) data for prototyping, as this latter owns similar specifications to AMI. Our proposed algorithm is decomposed in three major steps: atmospheric correction, bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) modeling and angular integration, and narrow-to-broadband conversion. To perform BRDF modeling, the optimization method using normalized reflectance was applied, which improved the quality of BRDF modeling results, particularly when the number of observations was less than 15. A quality assessment was performed to compare our results to those of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LSA products and ground measurement from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites, Australian and New Zealand flux tower network (OzFlux) site and the Korea Flux Network (KoFlux) site from throughout 2017. Our results show dependable spatial and temporal consistency with MODIS broadband LSA data, and rapid changes in LSA due to snowfall and snow melting were well expressed in the temporal profile of our results. Our outcomes also show good agreement with the ground measurements from AERONET, OzFlux and KoFlux ground-based network with root mean square errors (RMSE) of 0.0223 and 0.0306, respectively, which is close to the accuracy of MODIS broadband LSA. Moreover, our results reveal still more reliable LSA products even when clouds are frequently present, such as during the summer monsoon season. It shows that our results are useful for continuous LSA monitoring.