Zhang, GZ; Wu, MQ; Zhang, AD; Xing, QG; Zhou, M; Zhao, DH; Song, XD; Yu, ZL (2020). Influence of Sea Surface Temperature on Outbreak ofUlva proliferain the Southern Yellow Sea, China. CHINESE GEOGRAPHICAL SCIENCE, 30(4), 631-642.

In this study, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite images and environmental satellite CCD images, the spatio-temporal distribution ofUlva proliferain the southern Yellow Sea during the period of 2011-2018 was extracted and combined with MODIS Level3 Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) product data and Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data to analyze their influences on the growth and outbreak ofUlva prolifera.The following conclusions were drawn: 1) comprehensive analysis ofUlva proliferadistribution during the eight-year period revealed that the coverage area ofUlva proliferatypically exhibited a gradually increasing trend. The coverage area ofUlva proliferareached a maximum of approximately 1714.21 km(2)during the eight-year period in late June 2015. The area affected byUlva proliferafluctuated. In mid-July 2014, the area affected byUlva proliferareached a maximum of approximately 39 020.63 km(2). 2) The average growth rate ofUlva proliferawas positive in May and June but negative in July. During the outbreak ofUlva prolifera, the SST in the southern Yellow Sea tended to increase each month. The SST anomaly and average growth rate ofUlva proliferawere positively correlated in May (R-2=0.62), but not significantly correlated in June or July. 3) The variation trends of PAR and SST were approximately the same, and the PAR during this time period maintained a range of 40-50 mol/(m(2)center dot d), providing sufficient illumination for the growth and outbreak ofUlva prolifera.In addition, the abundant nutrients and suitable temperature in the sea area near northern Jiangsu shoal resulted in a high growth rate ofUlva proliferain May. In summary, the outbreak ofUlva proliferawas closely related to the environmental factors including SST, nutrients, and PAR. Sufficient nutrients and suitable temperatures resulted in a fast growth rate ofUlva prolifera.However, under poor nutrient conditions, even more suitable temperatures were not sufficient to trigger an outbreak ofUlva prolifera.