Gao, YH; Chen, F; Jiang, YS (2020). Evaluation of a Convection-Permitting Modeling of Precipitation over the Tibetan Plateau and Its Influences on the Simulation of Snow-Cover Fractione. JOURNAL OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY, 21(7), 1531-1548.

Precipitation is a critical input to land surface and hydrology modeling and prediction. Dynamical downscale modeling has added value to representing precipitation, when compared with the performance of coarse-resolution reanalysis and global climate models, over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Convection-permitting modeling (CPM) may even outperform dynamical downscale models (DDMs). In this study, 4-km CPM results were compared to 28-km DDM results for a snow season (1 October 2013-31 May 2014) over the TP. The CPM- and DDM-simulated precipitation, as well as three merged gridded precipitation datasets, were evaluated against in situ observations below 4800 m. The five precipitation datasets (CPM, DDM, CMFD, COPRPH, and TRMM) showed large differences over the TP with underestimation of TRMM and overestimation of CPM and DDM compared to observations. The most significant difference occurred in the Brahmaputra Grand Canyon. Given the substantial uncertainty in observed precipitation at high mountains, snow cover simulated by a high-resolution land data assimilation system was used to indirectly evaluate the above precipitation data using MODIS observations. Simulated snow-cover fraction was greatly underestimated using all the merged precipitation datasets. However, simulations using the DDM- and CPM-generated precipitation as input outperformed those using other gridded precipitation data, showing lower biases, higher pattern correlations, and closer probability distribution functions than runs driven by the merged precipitation. The findings of this study generally support the assumption that high-resolution CPM-produced precipitation has an added value for use in land surface and hydrology simulations in high-mountain regions without reliable in situ precipitation observations.