Zhang, M; Su, B; Bilal, M; Atique, L; Usman, M; Qiu, ZF; Ali, MA; Han, G (2020). An Investigation of Vertically Distributed Aerosol Optical Properties over Pakistan Using CALIPSO Satellite Data. REMOTE SENSING, 12(14), 2183.

The vertically distributed aerosol optical properties are investigated over Pakistan utilizing the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) Level 2 products from 2007 to 2014. For a better understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of vertical aerosol layers, the interannual and seasonal variations of nine selected aerosol parameters such as the AOD of the lowest aerosol layer (AOD(L)), the base height of the lowest aerosol layer (H-L), the top height of the highest aerosol layer (H-H), the volume depolarization ratio of the lowest aerosol layer (DRL), the color ratio of the lowest aerosol layer (CRL), total AOD of all the aerosol layers (AOD(T)), the number of aerosol feature layers (N), the thickness of the lowest aerosol layer (T-L), the AOD proportion for the lowest aerosol layer (PAOD(L)) for both day and night times are analyzed. The results show AOD(T)increased slightly from 2007 to 2014 over Pakistan, and relatively high AOD(T)exists over the Punjab and Sindh (southern region), which might be owing to the high level of economic development, frequent dust storms, and profound agricultural activities (anthropogenic emissions). AOD(T)increases from north to south. The reason may be that the southern region is rapidly urbanized and is near the desert. The northern region is dominated by agricultural land, and cities are usually semi-urbanized. The highest AOD(T)appears in summer compared to the other seasons, and during daytime compared to nighttime. The H(L)and H(H)vary significantly, owing to the topography of Pakistan. The N is relatively large over Punjab and Sindh compared to the other regions, which might be caused by relatively stronger atmospheric convections. The spatial distribution of the T(L)showed an inverse relationship with the topography as lower values are observed over elevated regions such as Gilgit-Baltistan and Jammu-Kashmir. The value of the PAOD(L)indicates that 77% of the total aerosols are mainly concentrated in the lowest layer of the atmosphere over Pakistan. The higher values of DR(L)and CR(L)indicate non-spherical and large particles over Balochistan and Sindh, which might be related to the proximity to the desert. This study provides very useful information about vertically distributed aerosol optical properties which could help researchers and policymakers to regulate and mitigate air pollution issues of Pakistan.