Twedt, KA; Angal, A; Xiong, XX (2020). Effects of out-of-band and time-varying relative spectral response on the calibration of MODIS reflective solar bands. JOURNAL OF APPLIED REMOTE SENSING, 14(2), 24523.

Calibration of the on-orbit gain changes of the narrow bandwidth reflective solar bands (RSB) of Terra and Aqua MODIS is usually based on the band center wavelength. The relative spectral response (RSR) of each band is assumed to be constant on orbit, and the time dependence of an overall gain factor is calculated. Any on-orbit changes to the RSR of the MODIS bands will introduce some error into the calibration and may also have an impact on the Earth scene radiance retrieval. We consider two different ways to track how the RSR of the MODIS RSB may change on orbit and the effects that these changes have on the calibration. First, we study the broadband degradation of the MODIS scan mirror and how it may change the effective out-of-band response of the RSB. Second, we examine in-band RSR measurements from the spectroradiometric calibration assembly carried on-board both MODIS instruments. We find that RSR changes have a relatively small effect on the radiance calibrated using the on-board solar diffuser, generally <0.5% for all RSB at any time in the missions, though the effect may be slightly larger for some scan angles. The impact of RSR changes on the Earth scene radiance retrieval is highly dependent on the spectral properties of the scene and could be significantly larger. The bands showing the largest impacts are Terra bands 1, 4, 8, 9, 17, and 19 and Aqua bands 8 and 9. (C) 2020 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)