Pereira, F; Bouali, M; Polito, PS; da Silveira, ICA; Candella, RN (2020). Discrepancies between satellite-derived and in situ SST data in the Cape Frio Upwelling System, Southeastern Brazil (23 & x2da;S). REMOTE SENSING LETTERS, 11(6), 555-562.

Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) presents discrepancies in both magnitude and temporal variability in the wind-driven coastal upwelling region off the Cape Frio (23 degrees S) in Southeastern Brazil. Level 2 (L2) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra and Aqua, and Level 4 (L4) SST products are compared with in situ measurements. Strong positive biases up to 4 degrees C are systematically observed in L4 products during upwelling events and decrease to less than 1 degrees C in non-upwelling days. Lower biases were found in L2 MODIS SST, and the statistical performance of L4 SST products did not present significant improvements in days when high-resolution clear-sky observations from MODIS were available. This indicates that spatio-temporal interpolation and ingestion of microwave-based data sets in L4 SST analyses are likely the main cause of observed discrepancies during upwelling events. Improved L2 SST retrieval algorithms and L4 SST analyses that take into account upwelling-related regional characteristics are required for more accurate satellite SST products over coastal regions.