Dominguez-Hernandez, G; Cepeda-Morales, J; Soto-Mardones, L; Rivera-Caicedo, JP; Romero-Rodriguez, DA; Inda-Diaz, EA; Hernandez-Almeida, OU; Romero-Banuelos, C (2020). Semi-annual variations of chlorophyll concentration on the Eastern Tropical Pacific coast of Mexico. ADVANCES IN SPACE RESEARCH, 65(11), 2595-2607.

An analysis of the main remotly sensed oceanographic variables was conducted to characterize the dominant drivers that modulate the spatial-temporal variability of coastal phytoplankton biomass in the northern limit of the Eastern Tropical Pacific. The phytoplankton biomass was analyzed using monthly average satellite chlorophyll (Chlo) concentration data from MODIS sensors for the period 2003-2017. Oceanographic conditions were analyzed by considering (i) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) high-resolution data from the GHRSST project, (ii) wind stress calculated with data from the zonal and meridional components of the CCMP product, (iii) climatological precipitation, and (iv) climatological river flow. Chlo time series and spatial variability were analyzed using Hovmoller diagrams and Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF), respectively. A strong semi-annual signal in Chlo concentration along the coast was observed: the first peak occurs in winter-spring (5.0 mg.m(-3)) and a second one in summer-autumn (6.5 mg.m(-3)). A high year-round average of Chlo concentration (3.0-15.0 mg.m(-3)) was maintained by a 10 km wide along-shore coast, with maximum values spatially associated with river mouths, of which Santiago river registered the highest Chlo values (20.0 mg.m(-3)). Surface oceanographic conditions showed a marked annual cycle with warmer conditions (30-31 degrees C) from July to October and colder ones (23-24 degrees C) from December to April; during the cold period, seasonal wind stress stimulated coastal upwelling. The EOF showed that 70% of Chlo concentration variability was controlled by the semi-annual pattern, which responded to coastal upwelling conditions during cold period, while rivers outflows influenced high Chlo concentration during the warm period. These results highlighted the importance for land-ocean interface to sustain coastal ecosystems' biological production and the major role of watersheds as sources of nutrients to maintain high biological production during warm periods in transitional tropical-subtropical zones. (C) 2020 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.