Yamamoto, Y; Ichii, K; Higuchi, A; Takenaka, H (2020). Geolocation Accuracy Assessment of Himawari-8/AHI Imagery for Application to Terrestrial Monitoring. REMOTE SENSING, 12(9), 1372.

Recent advancements in new generation geostationary satellites have facilitated the application of their datasets to terrestrial monitoring. In this application, geolocation accuracy is an essential issue because land surfaces are generally heterogeneous. In the case of the Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) onboard Himawari-8, geometric correction of the Himawari Standard Data provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA data) was conducted using thermal infrared band with 2 km spatial resolution. Based on JMA data, the Center for Environmental Remote Sensing (CEReS) at Chiba University applied a further geometric correction using a visible band with 500 m spatial resolution and released a dataset (CEReS data). JMA data target more general users mainly for meteorological observations, whereas CEReS data aim at terrestrial monitoring for more precise geolocation accuracy. The objectives of this study are to clarify the temporal and spatial variations of geolocation errors in these two datasets and assess their stability for unexpected large misalignment. In this study, the temporal tendencies of the relative geolocation difference between the two datasets were analyzed, and temporal fluctuations of band 3 reflectances of JMA data and CEReS data at certain fixed sites were investigated. A change in the geolocation trend and occasional shifts greater than 2 pixels were found in JMA data. With improved image navigation performance, the geolocation difference was decreased in CEReS data, suggesting the high temporal stability of CEReS data. Overall, JMA data showed an accuracy of less than 2 pixels with the spatial resolution of band 3. When large geolocation differences were observed, anomalies were also detected in the reflectance of JMA data. Nevertheless, CEReS data successfully corrected the anomalous errors and achieved higher geolocation accuracy in general. As CEReS data are processed during the daytime due to the availability of visible bands, we suggest the use of CEReS data for effective terrestrial monitoring during the daytime.