Haq, MA; Baral, P; Yaragal, S; Rahaman, G (2020). Assessment of trends of land surface vegetation distribution, snow cover and temperature over entire Himachal Pradesh using MODIS datasets. NATURAL RESOURCE MODELING, 33(2), e12262.

We examine spatial and temporal variability in normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), snow cover and land surface temperature (LST) in Himachal Pradesh between 2001 and 2017 using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets. Mann-Kendall trend tests and Sen's slope estimates indicate increasing NDVI trends during the postmonsoon period. Increasing snow cover trend is observed during winter and premonsoon whereas decreasing annual LST trends are observed for Himachal Pradesh. Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) indicate a strong positive correlation between NDVI and LST (PCC = .808) and strong negative correlation between LST and snow cover (PCC = -.809) and NDVI and snow cover (PCC = -.838). Coefficient of determination greater than .90, between MODIS LST and snow cover observations and weather station records, indicate fair representation of ground conditions using the MODIS dataset. Low (2.4 degrees C/1,000 m) and steep (7.1 degrees C/1,000 m) temperature lapse rate is observed during monsoon and winter, respectively.