Zou, B; Liu, N; Wang, W; Feng, HH; Liu, XP; Lin, Y (2020). An Effective and Efficient Enhanced Fixed Rank Smoothing Method for the Spatiotemporal Fusion of Multiple-Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth Products. REMOTE SENSING, 12(7), 1102.

Current reported spatiotemporal solutions for fusing multisensor aerosol optical depth (AOD) products used to recover gaps either suffer from unacceptable accuracy levels, i.e., fixed rank smooth (FRS), or high time costs, i.e., Bayesian maximum entropy (BME). This problem is generally more serious when dealing with multiple AOD products in a long time series or over large geographic areas. This study proposes a new, effective, and efficient enhanced FRS method (FRS-EE) to fuse satellite AOD products with uncertainty constraints. AOD products used in the fusion experiment include Moderate Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) DB/DT_DB_Combined AOD and Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) AOD across mainland China from 2016 to 2017. Results show that the average completeness of original, initial FRS fused, and FRS-EE fused AODs with uncertainty constraints are 22.80%, 95.18%, and 65.84%, respectively. Although the correlation coefficient (R = 0.77), root mean square error (RMSE = 0.30), and mean bias (Bias = 0.023) of the initial FRS fused AODs are relatively lower than those of original AODs compared to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOD records, the accuracy of FRS-EE fused AODs, which are R = 0.88, RMSE = 0.20, and Bias = 0.022, is obviously improved. More importantly, in regions with fully missing original AODs, the accuracy of FRS-EE fused AODs is close to that of original AODs in regions with valid retrievals. Meanwhile, the time cost of FRS-EE for AOD fusion was only 2.91 h; obviously lower than the 30.46 months taken for BME.