Ajtai, N; Stefanie, H; Mereata, A; Radovici, A; Botezan, C (2020). Multi-Sensor Observation of a Saharan Dust Outbreak over Transylvania, Romania in April 2019. ATMOSPHERE, 11(4), 364.

Mineral aerosols are considered to be the second largest source of natural aerosol, the Saharan desert being the main source of dust at global scale. Under certain meteorological conditions, Saharan dust can be transported over large parts of Europe, including Romania. The aim of this paper is to provide a complex analysis of a Saharan dust outbreak over the Transylvania region of Romania, based on the synergy of multiple ground-based and satellite sensors in order to detect the dust intrusion with a higher degree of certainty. The measurements were performed during the peak of the outbreak on April the 24th 2019, with instruments such as a Cimel sun-photometer and a multi-wavelength Raman depolarization lidar, together with an in-situ particle counter measuring at ground level. Remote sensing data from MODIS sensors on Terra and Aqua were also analyzed. Results show the presence of dust aerosol layers identified by the multi-wavelength Raman and depolarization lidar at altitudes of 2500-4000 m, and 7000 m, respectively. The measured optical and microphysical properties, together with the HYSPLIT back-trajectories, NMMB/BSC dust model, and synoptic analysis, confirm the presence of lofted Saharan dust layers over Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The NMMB/BSC dust model predicted dust load values between 1 and 1.5 g/m(2) over Cluj-Napoca at 12:00 UTC for April the 24th 2019. Collocated in-situ PM monitoring showed that dry deposition was low, with PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations similar to the seasonal averages for Cluj-Napoca.