Cui, YK; Ma, SH; Yao, ZY; Chen, X; Luo, ZL; Fan, WJ; Hong, Y (2020). Developing a Gap-Filling Algorithm Using DNN for the Ts-VI Triangle Model to Obtain Temporally Continuous Daily Actual Evapotranspiration in an Arid Area of China. REMOTE SENSING, 12(7).

Temporally continuous daily actual evapotranspiration (ET) data play a critical role in water resource management in arid areas. As a typical remotely sensed land surface temperature (LST)-based ET model, the surface temperature-vegetation index (Ts-VI) triangle model provides direct monitoring of ET, but these estimates are temporally discontinuous due to cloud contamination. In this work, we present a gap-filling algorithm (TSVI_DNN) using a deep neural network (DNN) with the Ts-VI triangle model to obtain temporally continuous daily actual ET at regional scale. The TSVI_DNN model is evaluated against in situ measurements in an arid area of China during 2009-2011 and shows good agreement with eddy covariance (EC) observations. The temporal coverage was improved from 16.1% with the original Ts-VI tringle model to 67.1% with the TSVI_DNN model. The correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), bias, and mean absolute difference (MAD) are 0.9, 0.86 mm d(-1), -0.16 mm d(-1), and 0.65 mm d(-1), respectively. When compared with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) official MOD16 version 6 ET product, estimates of ET using TSVI_DNN are improved by approximately 49.2%. The method presented here can potentially contribute to enhanced water resource management in arid areas, especially under climate change.