Sakti, AD; Takeuchi, W (2020). A Data-Intensive Approach to Address Food Sustainability: Integrating Optic and Microwave Satellite Imagery for Developing Long-Term Global Cropping Intensity and Sowing Month from 2001 to 2015. SUSTAINABILITY, 12(8), 3227.

It is necessary to develop a sustainable food production system to ensure future food security around the globe. Cropping intensity and sowing month are two essential parameters for analyzing the food-water-climate tradeoff as food sustainability indicators. This study presents a global-scale analysis of cropping intensity and sowing month from 2000 to 2015, divided into three groups of years. The study methodology integrates the satellite-derived normalized vegetation index (NDVI) of 16-day composite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and daily land-surface-water coverage (LSWC) data obtained from The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E/2) in 1-km aggregate pixel resolution. A fast Fourier transform was applied to normalize the MODIS NDVI time-series data. By using advanced methods with intensive optic and microwave time-series data, this study set out to anticipate potential dynamic changes in global cropland activity over 15 years representing the Millennium Development Goal period. These products are the first global datasets that provide information on crop activities in 15-year data derived from optic and microwave satellite data. The results show that in 2000-2005, the total global double-crop intensity was 7.1 million km(2), which increased to 8.3 million km(2) in 2006-2010, and then to approximately 8.6 million km(2) in 2011-2015. In the same periods, global triple-crop agriculture showed a rapid positive growth from 0.73 to 1.12 and then 1.28 million km(2), respectively. The results show that Asia dominated double- and triple-crop growth, while showcasing the expansion of single-cropping area in Africa. The finer spatial resolution, combined with a long-term global analysis, means that this methodology has the potential to be applied in several sustainability studies, from global- to local-level perspectives.