van Diedenhoven, B; Cairns, B (2020). A Flexible Parameterization for Shortwave and Longwave Optical Properties of Ice Crystals and Derived Bulk Optical Properties for Climate Models. JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, 77(4), 1245-1260.

We provide a parameterization of the extinction efficiency, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry parameter of single ice crystals with any combination of particle volume, projected area, component aspect ratio, and crystal distortion at any wavelength between 0.2 and 100 mu m. The parameterization is an extension of the one previously published by van Diedenhoven et al. In addition, the parameterized optical properties are integrated over size distributions yielding bulk extinction efficiencies, single-scattering albedos, and asymmetry parameters for large ranges of effective radii, particle component aspect ratios, and crystal distortion values. The parameterization of single-particle optical properties is evaluated with a reference database. The bulk optical properties are evaluated against the ice model selected for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) collection 6 products, for which accurate optical properties are available. Mean absolute errors in parameterized extinction efficiency, asymmetry parameter, and single-scattering albedo are shown to be 0.0272, 0.008 90, and 0.004 68, respectively, for shortwave wavelengths, while they are 0.0641, 0.0368, and 0.0200 in the longwave. Shortwave and longwave asymmetry parameters and single-scattering albedos are shown to vary strongly with particle component aspect ratio and distortion, resulting in substantial variation in shortwave fluxes, but relatively small variations in longwave cloud emissivity. The parameterization and bulk optical properties are made publicly available.