Zhang, YL; Qin, X; Li, X; Zhao, J; Liu, YS (2020). Estimation of Shortwave Solar Radiation on Clear-Sky Days for a Valley Glacier with Sentinel-2 Time Series. REMOTE SENSING, 12(6), 927.

Downward surface shortwave radiation (DSSR) is the main energy source for most glacial melting, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data have been used extensively in the inversion of input parameters for estimating DSSR. However, for valley glaciers under complex climatic conditions, the values of MODIS atmospheric products, especially aerosol products, are often invalid, and TM images are always saturated with snow. Furthermore, an estimation model based on optical satellite images must simultaneously consider terrain and atmospheric effects and the transient nature of ice/snow albedo. Based on a high-resolution (12 m) digital elevation model (DEM), the newly launched Sentinel-2 satellites, rather than MODIS and TM, were used to provide input data for our published mountain radiation scheme in a valley glacier. Considering Laohugou Glacier No. 12 as the study area, 62 typical Sentinel-2 scenes were selected and spatiotemporal DSSR variations on the glacier surface were obtained with a 10 m spatial resolution during a mass-balance year from September 2017 to August 2018. Ground-based measurements on 52 clear-sky days were used for validation and the mean bias error (MBE = -16.0 W/m(2)) and root-mean-square difference (RMSD = 73.6 W/m(2)) were relatively low. The results confirm that DSSR is affected mainly by the solar zenith angle and atmospheric attenuation in flat areas of valley glaciers, while in areas with complex terrain, the DSSR received by the glacier surface is affected primarily by the terrain and ice/snow albedo, which exhibits very high spatial heterogeneity.