Zhang, XD; Zhang, J; Meng, JM; Fan, CQ; Wang, J (2020). Observation of internal waves with OLCI and SRAL on board Sentinel-3. ACTA OCEANOLOGICA SINICA, 39(3), 56-62.

The ocean and land color instrument (OLCI) and synthetic aperture radar altimeter (SRAL) installed aboard the Sentinel-3 satellite have been in orbit for operational uses. In this study, data collected from Sentinel-3 are used to investigate internal waves in the South China Sea. An internal wave is detected using an OLCI image with a resolution of 300 m, and an analysis was performed with a quasi-synchronous moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) image. The opposite characteristics of OLCI and MODIS images of the same internal wave are explained by the critical angle in brightness reversals. The unique observational geometry of the OLCI image and its influence on observations of internal waves are discussed. The distribution of sigma(0) and sea surface height anomalies (SSHAs) induced by internal waves are studied using SRAL records. The sigma(0) records of SRAL occasionally show less sensitivity to the modulation of internal waves, which may be attributed to the observational geometry, while SSHAs show obvious variations. The synchronous pairing of OLCI images and SRAL records are analyzed to extract the three-dimensional sea surface signatures induced by internal waves. The analysis demonstrates that the profile of SSHAs in the surface shows an opposite phase to the profiles of internal waves in the ocean. The opposite phase relationship, observed in the remote sensing view, is also confirmed with a laboratory experiment.