Zhang, XN; Jiao, ZT; Dong, YD; He, T; Ding, AX; Yin, SY; Zhang, H; Cui, L; Chang, YX; Guo, J; Xie, R (2020). Development of the Direct-Estimation Albedo Algorithm for Snow-Free Landsat TM Albedo Retrievals Using Field Flux Measurements. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON GEOSCIENCE AND REMOTE SENSING, 58(3), 1550-1567.

Anisotropy information from moderate-to-coarse-resolution sensors [e.g., 500-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)] is widely applied to estimate high-resolution surface albedo. Simulated albedos using MODIS bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) parameters as prior knowledge based on the kernel-driven model are employed to build and assess the lookup table (LUT) of the direct-estimation method, which is then used to estimate high-resolution albedos directly from top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance data (e.g., Landsat albedo). Previously, the errors in the simulated albedos were not considered in building and assessing the LUT. In this article, daytime time-series (30 min) of snow-free albedo measurements with sufficient solar zenith angles (SZAs) were introduced to build the LUT for snow-free Landsat TM surface shortwave broadband albedo (TM albedo) retrievals, together with TOA-simulated reflectance by concurrent daily MODIS BRDF parameters. The assessment utilizes an independent data set and shows larger discrepancies between the estimated and measured albedos [root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) of >0.03 at SZAs >= 60 degrees] than those in previous articles. To reduce inconsistencies between the MODIS BRDF parameters and the observed albedos, as well as possible spatial resolution differences between the MODIS and Landsat data, we adopted a correction strategy that first linearly adjusts the MODIS BRDF parameters to match the albedo measurements by a magnitude method, and second, the TOA reflectance simulations were further corrected by concurrent TM reflectances. The developed algorithm shows a significant improvement after using such corrections as a priori (RMSE < 0.02 at SZA <= 75 degrees). The validation indicates improved accuracies in the TM albedo estimation. These improvements may provide potential albedo estimations for nadir-viewing high-resolution sensors using coarse-resolution anisotropy information.