Yan, GJ; Jiao, ZH; Wang, TX; Mu, XH (2020). Modeling surface longwave radiation over high-relief terrain. REMOTE SENSING OF ENVIRONMENT, 237, 111556.

Thermal anisotropy is an important phenomenon in thermal infrared remote sensing as it restricts the retrieval accuracy of surface longwave radiation (SLR). Topography is an essential controlling factor for the directionality of SLR for high-relief regions (e.g., mountain regions) where there is land surface heterogeneity and non-isothermal properties at pixel scales. However, satellite sensors can only receive radiance from a specific surface object at a small number of simultaneous viewing angles, which makes the quantitative modeling of thermal anisotropy challenging. Therefore, we developed the topographic longwave radiation model (TLRM) to describe the directionality of SLR components taking into account the variability of both subpixel topography and thermal anisotropy in high-relief regions. The reliability of TLRM was validated using the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model over two typical geomorphic areas: a valley scene and a peak scene. The preliminary validation shows good agreement in terms of surface upward longwave radiance, which confirms the potential of TLRM for capturing the anisotropic patterns of land surfaces. The radiance values simulated by the DART model were first revised for the spectral mismatch. Then, they are used to correct residual deviation for TLRM using linear regressions. The root mean square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R-2) were 0.830 W/(m(2) .sr) and 0.746 for the valley scene, respectively, and 0.239 W/(m(2).sr) and 0.711 for the peak scene, respectively. Compared with TLRM, models that do not consider terrain effects generate significant discrepancies in high relief SLR components. The differences in downward longwave radiation can reach -60 W/m(2) in valleys without considering terrain effects. Based on the reference of hemispherical upward longwave radiation, surface upward longwave radiation estimated by the direct estimation method had a bias of 11.41 W/m(2) and standard deviation (STD) of 7.30 W/m(2), while the directional upward longwave radiation had a bias of 5.99 W/m(2) and STD of 4.08 W/m(2), showing lower estimation variation. The discrepancy between surface net longwave radiation (NLR) and terrain-corrected NLR ranged between 50 and -130 W/m(2) with clear negative biases mainly occurring in valleys. With higher spatial resolutions of remotely sensed imagery, the influence of complex terrain on land surface radiative flux has become more significant. This parameterization scheme is expected to better represent the topographic effects on SLR, enhance understanding of thermal anisotropy in non-isothermal mixed pixel areas of high relief, and improve the inversion accuracy of SLR.