Myers-Smith, IH; Kerby, JT; Phoenix, GK; Bjerke, JW; Epstein, HE; Assmann, JJ; John, C; Andreu-Hayles, L; Angers-Blondin, S; Beck, PSA; Berner, LT; Bhatt, US; Bjorkman, AD; Blok, D; Bryn, A; Christiansen, CT; Cornelissen, JHC; Cunliffe, AM; Elmendorf, SC; Forbes, BC; Goetz, SJ; Hollister, RD; de Jong, R; Loranty, MM; Macias-Fauria, M; Maseyk, K; Normand, S; Olofsson, J; Parker, TC; Parmentier, FJW; Post, E; Schaepman-Strub, G; Stordal, F; Sullivan, PF; Thomas, HJD; Tommervik, H; Treharne, R; Tweedie, CE; Walker, DA; Wilmking, M; Wipf, S (2020). Complexity revealed in the greening of the Arctic. NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE, 10(2), 106-117.

As tundra ecosystems respond to rapid Arctic warming, satellite records suggest a widespread greening. This Perspective highlights the challenges of interpreting complex Arctic greening trends and provides direction for future research by combining ecological and remote sensing approaches. As the Arctic warms, vegetation is responding, and satellite measures indicate widespread greening at high latitudes. This 'greening of the Arctic' is among the world's most important large-scale ecological responses to global climate change. However, a consensus is emerging that the underlying causes and future dynamics of so-called Arctic greening and browning trends are more complex, variable and inherently scale-dependent than previously thought. Here we summarize the complexities of observing and interpreting high-latitude greening to identify priorities for future research. Incorporating satellite and proximal remote sensing with in-situ data, while accounting for uncertainties and scale issues, will advance the study of past, present and future Arctic vegetation change.