Firozjaei, MK; Fathololoumi, S; Kiavarz, M; Arsanjani, JJ; Alavipanah, SK (2020). Modelling surface heat island intensity according to differences of biophysical characteristics: A case study of Amol city, Iran. ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS, 109, 105816.

One of the most important environmental phenomena in urban environments is urban heat island, which plays a big role in understanding anthropogenic activities. The main objective of this study is to present a novel approach based on the differences of the biophysical characteristics between built-up and non-built-up land to model Surface Heat Island Intensity (SUHII). To do so, several datasets such as Landsat images, MODIS products of MOD07L2 and MOD11A1, and data recorded at the local meteorological station for the period of 1985-2017 for Amol, Iran were used. Land Surface Temperature (LST) was calculated from single-channel algorithm and SUHII was calculated using the Surface Urban Heat Island Ratio Index (SUHIRI) as well as the surface biophysical characteristics. Finally, based on Least Squares Adjustment (LSA) model, the influence coefficient of the difference of each biophysical parameter between built-up and non-built-up land on the SUHII was calculated. The results show that the average LST of the built-up land exceeds of that for the non-built-up LST by 2.9 degrees C. In the study area, SUHII varies by time within 1985-2017. The standard deviation of the differences between the characteristics of brightness, greenness and surface wetness of the built-up and non-built-up land was 0.36, 0.76 and 1.17, respectively. The LSA model results show that the difference in the brightness of the built-up and non-built-up land relative to the two parameters of greenness and wetness has a greater effect on the SUHII. The coefficient of determination and root mean square error between the observed SUHII and the LSA-based calculation for the training set were 0.80 and 0.06, and for the testing set 0.75 and 0.08, respectively. The results of this study indicate the significant effect of the differences in the biophysical characteristics of land on the SUHII and the effectiveness of the model presented in the study to model the SUHII.