Zhang, N; Wang, P; Zhao, X (2020). Fine Extraction of Water Boundaries Based on an Improved Subpixel Mapping Algorithm. IEEE ACCESS, 8, 179203-179212.

The fine extraction of water boundaries is of great significance for water resource monitoring, water environment monitoring, and flood prevention. MODIS images are widely used for water extraction due to their high temporal resolution, wide coverage, gratuity, and long observation period. However, owing to their low spatial resolution, the water boundary results are often blurred. It is difficult to extract water boundaries accurately. The subpixel mapping algorithm can solve this problem. In this article, Dongting Lake and its surroundings are adopted as the experimental area. The digital elevation model (DEM) is used to modify the subpixel/pixel spatial attraction model (SPSAM) mapping results. The proposed algorithm is referred to as the DEM-modified SPSAM (D-MSPSAM). Based on the visual results of the two sets of experiments, the modified results suitably maintain the spatial details of the water, and many of the underestimations caused by the similarity of the spectral characteristics of the surroundings to those of the water have been corrected. In this paper, the accuracy of Landsat-8 water extraction is used as a reference. Based on the quantitative results, the D-MSPSAM method has a higher extraction accuracy than the traditional threshold method, and the accuracies of the extraction for high water and low water have been increased by 3.56 percentage points and 2.77 percentage points, respectively. Furthermore, these results also confirm the potential application of DEM data for flood submergence extraction and provide new ideas for the improvement of the subpixel mapping model. The proposed method can accurately generate water distribution maps in a practical and economical way.