Becker, WR; Richetti, J; Mercante, E; Esquerdo, JCD; da Silva, CA; Paludo, A; Johann, JA (2020). Agricultural soybean and corn calendar based on moderate resolution satellite images for southern Brazil. SEMINA-CIENCIAS AGRARIAS, 41(5), 2419-2428.

Knowledge of the agricultural calendar of crops is essential to better estimate and forecast the cultivation of large-scale crops. The aim of this study was to estimate sowing date (SD), date of maximum vegetative development (DMVD), and harvest date (HD) of soybean and corn in the state of Parana, Brazil. Dates from 120 farms and the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from 2011 to 2014 were used into a seasonal trend analysis to obtain soybean and corn seasonal patterns. The results indicate that the majority soybean is sown during October and the DMVD occurs between the second ten-day period of December and the first ten-day period of January. Owing to the spatial variability of the SD, the difference in the maturation cycles of the cultivars, and regional climatic variation, the HD of soybean varied greatly during the studied crop years, ranging from mid-February to late March. The SD of corn is before that of soybean, and mainly occurs in late September to mid-October. The DMVD mainly occurs during December, and the HD is distributed throughout January to March in Parana. When comparing the estimated dates with observed dates the mean error (ME) varied from 0.2 days earlier to 3.3 days after the observed date for soybean with root mean square error (RMSE) from 1.93 to 14.73 days. For corn, the ME varied from 10.3 days to 18.5 days after the observed date with RMSE from 18.02 to 27.82 days.