Obata, K; Yoshioka, H (2020). A Simple Algorithm for Deriving an NDVI-Based Index Compatible between GEO and LEO Sensors: Capabilities and Limitations in Japan. REMOTE SENSING, 12(15), 2417.

Geostationary (GEO) satellite sensors provide earth observation data with a high temporal frequency and can complement low earth orbit (LEO) sensors in monitoring terrestrial vegetation. Consistency between GEO and LEO observation data is thus critical to the synergistic use of the sensors; however, mismatch between the sun-target-sensor viewing geometries in the middle-to-high latitude region and the sensor-specific spectral response functions (SRFs) introduce systematic errors into GEO-LEO products such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). If one can find a parameter in which the value is less influenced by geometric conditions and SRFs, it would be invaluable for the synergistic use of the multiple sensors. This study attempts to develop an algorithm to obtain such parameters (NDVI-based indices), which are equivalent to fraction of vegetation cover (FVC) computed from NDVI and endmember spectra. The algorithm was based on a linear mixture model (LMM) with automated computation of the parameters, i.e., endmember spectra. The algorithm was evaluated through inter-comparison between NDVI-based indices using off-nadir GEO observation data from the Himawari 8 Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI) and near-nadir LEO observation data from the Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) as a reference over land surfaces in Japan at middle latitudes. Results showed that scene-dependent biases between the NDVI-based indices of sensors were-0.0004 +/- 0.018(mean +/- standard deviation). Small biases were observed in areas in which the fractional abundances of vegetation were likely less sensitive to the view zenith angle. Agreement between the NDVI-based indices of the sensors was, in general, better than the agreement between the NDVI values. Importantly, the developed algorithm does not require regression analysis for reducing biases between the indices. The algorithm should assist in the development of algorithms for performing inter-sensor translations of vegetation indices using the NDVI-based index as a parameter.