Shwetha, HR; Kumar, DN (2020). Estimation of Daily Actual Evapotranspiration Using Vegetation Coefficient Method for Clear and Cloudy Sky Conditions. IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED TOPICS IN APPLIED EARTH OBSERVATIONS AND REMOTE SENSING, 13, 2385-2395.

Actual evapotranspiration (AET) can be studied and estimated using remote-sensing-based methods at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Reflectance and Land surface temperature are essential in these methods. However optical and thermal sensors fail to provide these data under overcast conditions and this creates gap in the AET product. Besides, there is a necessity of the AET method that requires less data and estimates AET with better accuracy. In this regard, AET was estimated for all-sky conditions using the vegetation coefficient (VI-Kv) method utilizing microwave, thermal, and optical data. Essential reference evapotranspiration (ET0) under cloudy conditions was estimated using LST-based Penman-Monteith temperature (PMT) and Hargreaves-Samani equations. Furthermore, LST predicted using the microwave polarization difference index (PLST) and LST of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) cloud product (MLST) were evaluated with in-situ air temperature (Ta) under cloudy sky conditions. Results revealed that the PLST correlated better with Ta than MLST with correlation coefficient (r) values of 0.71 and 0.81 for day and night times, respectively. Hence, PLST-based solar radiation (Rs) estimation yielded better accuracy with observed Rs with r and root mean square error values of 0.864 and 0.07 for Berambadi station under cloudy conditions, respectively. PMT-based ET0 values corresponded well with the observed ET0 under cloudy sky condition during this study. In addition, AET estimated using the VI-Kv method was compared with the simple two-source energy balance (TSEB) method under clear sky conditions. It was found that the improved VI-Kv method performed better than the TSEB method and could also fairly estimate AET even under cloudy sky conditions.