Li, XH; Shen, RP; Chen, RX (2020). Improving Time Series Reconstruction by Fixing Invalid Values and its Fidelity Evaluation. IEEE ACCESS, 8, 7558-7572.

MODIS time series data have been widely used in the research of regional and global ecosystems and climate change. For vegetation monitoring, vegetation indices such as NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), EVI (enhanced vegetation index) and NBR (normalized burn ratio), are usually derived from MODIS reflectance data. However, noise usually makes it difficult to generate reliable time series of vegetation indices. Although some methods have been developed for reconstructing NDVI time series data, they still suffer from some limitations. First, there is no reliable approach for detecting and dealing with low-quality data, resulting in poor outcomes. Second, no effective evaluation of the fidelity of the corrected data to the original data has been discussed. For these reasons, we developed a new time series reconstruction approach, named Fixing Invalid Value (FIV) method. The proposed method assumes that the noise in surface reflectance data stems from invalid data, such as clouds, ice, and missing values. The FIV method first uses the spatially and temporally neighboring pixels to estimate the invalid values and then applies morphology operations to remove the residual noise. Finally, the Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filter is employed to generate the final results. The FIV method is tested on 8-day composite MODIS surface reflectance time series data from 2001 to 2012 in Jiangxi and Fujian provinces, China. The results show that the FIV method outperforms the conventional S-G filter and the HANTS method both in terms of visual inspection and quantitative evaluation. Furthermore, the fidelity evaluation reveals that the proposed FIV method produces high-quality time series data under all weather conditions.